**>** Energy band gap**>**
GaAs |
Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}As |
In_{x}Ga_{1-x}As

**>** Refractive index
**>** GaAs |
AlAs |
Al_{x}Ga_{1-x}As |
In_{x}Ga_{1-x}As

**>** Devices
**>** Bragg mirror |
RSAM |
SA |
SANOS |
SOC |
Microchip |
**PCA**

**>** Device application
**>** Papers |
Patents |
FAQs

*Construction:*

- A photoconductive antenna (PCA) for terahertz (THz) waves consists of a highly resistive direct semiconductor thin film with two electric contact pads. In most cases the film consists of a III-V compound semiconductor like GaAs. It is epitaxially grown on a highly resistive semi-insulating GaAs substrate (SI-GaAs).
- The important difference between the SI-GaAs substrate and the film is the relaxation time for excited carriers. In a SI-substrate the carrier lifetime is about 20 ps, but in the film shorter than 1 ps.

*Behaviour:*

- A short laser puls with puls width < 1 ps is focused between the electric contacts of the PCA.
The photons of the laser pulse have a photon energy E = hν
larger than the semiconductor energy gap E
_{g}and are absorbed in the film. - Each absorbed photon creates a free electron in the conduction band and a hole in the valence band of the film and makes them for a short time electrical conducting until the carriers are recombined.
- To get the needed short carrier lifetime the film must include crystal defects.
These defects can be created by ion implantation after the film growth or alternatively
by a low temperature growth. Low temperature grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) between 200 and
300 °C contains excess arsenic clusters. These clusters create defect levels within the band gap E
_{g}and lead to a fast non-radiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs within a time interval < 1 ps.

*Application:*

- The PCA can be used as THz
**transmitter**as well as THz**receiver** - In case of a
**transmitter**a voltage V is connected on the electrical contacts and the excited carriers are accelerated by the electric field during the optical pulse resulting in a short broadband electromagnetic pulse with a time-dependent electrical field E(t) and frequencies in the THz region. - In case of a THz
**receiver**an amplifier is connected on the electrical contacts. During the optical pulse the excited carriers are accelerated by the electric field component of the incident terahertz pulse with the time-dependent electrical field E(t). This leads to a voltage signal across the antenna gap.

• PCA application

*PCA application*

The PCA can be used as a THz emitter or detector in
pulse laser gated broadband THz measurement systems for time-domain spectroscopy.

Because THz waves penetrate dielectric materials like paper or plastic, are reflected by
materials with free electrons like metals and are absorbed by moleculs with
certain vibration levels within the terahertz band they have a lot of applications in the
fields of time-domain spectroscopy and imaging.

Note: Terahertz radiation is nonionizing. That means it is safe.

Process control

- Polymeric compounding.
- Examining circuit interconnects in packaged ICs.
- Final control of packaged products.
- Quality control in food processing.
- Rapid characterisation of the stability and polymorphic forms of drugs.

Security checks

- Screening passengers for explosives and weapons
- Luggage screening
- Mail drug screening
- Reading text in envelopes or beneath paint.

• Frequency and wavelength

*Frequency and wavelength*

The photoconductive antenna can be considered as a dipole of length L which is in resonance with
the electromagnetic wavelength λ_{n} inside the semiconductor.

The resonance condition is L = m · λ_{n}/2 with m = 1, 2, 3,.. integer.

The wavelength λ_{n} in the material with refractive index n can be approximated by λ_{n} = λ/n.

Using the wave relation c = λ · f and m = 1 the resonance frequency f of the antenna can be estimated as f = c/(2 · n ·L) with

- c = 3 · 10
^{8}m/s - speed of light in vacuum. - n - refractive index of the semiconductor antenna material.
- L - length of the antenna dipole.

The refractive index n of GaAs at terahertz frequencies is n = 3.4. With this value the first resonant frequency and wavelength of the antenna with length L can be calculated as follows:

f (THz) | λ (µm) | L (µm) |
---|---|---|

0.3 | 1000 | 147 |

0.5 | 600 | 88 |

1.0 | 300 | 44 |

1.5 | 200 | 29.4 |

3.0 | 100 | 14.7 |

• Focusing the optical beam on the antenna

*Focusing the optical beam on the photoconductive antenna*

The semiconducting gap in the center of the antenna must be illuminated by a focused laser beam.
If we consider a Gaussian beam then the beam width w(z) along the beam axis z and the Raygleigh range z_{R} are

and

The diameter of the beam width 2·w_{0} at the focus point z = 0 is

with λ - laser wavelength, f_{L} - focal length of the lens,
D - diameter of the laser beam at the focusing lens.

To ensure that the focused beam diamter 2·w_{0} is somewhat larger then the antenna gap distance g the focal length f_{L}
of the focusing lens must be

In case of g = 5 µm, D = 1 mm, and λ = 800 nm the focal length of the lens must be f_{L} ~ 6 mm.

* Gaussian beam width w(z) as a function of the distance z along the beam axis.
w _{0} - beam waist; b - depth of focus; z_{R} - Rayleigh range; θ - asymptotic beam divergence.*

• THz pulse emission

* THz pulse emission*

*Phase 1: Antenna before illumination *

- The semiconducting antenna gap is highly resistive. No free electrons are in the conduction band.
- A supply voltage V between the two antenna contacts results in an electric field
in the semiconducting antenna gap between the metal contacts. The electric field strength is E = V/g
(g - gap distance).

With a typical supply voltage of 10 V and a gap distance of 5 µm the electric field strength is E = 2·10^{6}V/m. - The optical pulse must be focused onto the semiconducting antenna gap in such a way, that the spot diameter 2·w
_{0}is slightly larger then the gap distance g so that the metal lines are also illuminated.

*Phase 2: Optical pulse meets the antenna gap *

- A short optical pulse meets the antenna gap. The optical energy is absorbed and free carriers are created in the semiconductor material. Each absorbed photon creates a free electron.
- The free electrons follow the electric field creating a short current pulse j(t) in the semiconducting gap material.
- Typical values for the optical pulse are: Pulse duration &atu; ~ 100 fs, Pulse energy E ~ 100 pJ,
Pulse repetition rate f
_{rep}~ 100 MHz, Average optical power P_{av}~ 10 mW.

*Phase 3: THz pulse emission*

- An electromagnetic field is emitted by the dipole as long as the current pulse changes with time.
- At first the current increases during the illumination of the gap and emits the first part of the THz pulse.
- If the current decreases because the electric field is subsequently compensated by the transferred carriers then the second part of the THz pulse is emitted with a reverse polarization direction.
- The THz pulse is emitted around the dipole with a polarization direction of the electric field parallel to the dipole axis.
- Most of the electromagnetic energy is emitted into the half space of the semiconducting substrate material with high refractive index n ~ 3.4. Therefore the emitted THz pulse in the substrate direction shall be collected for measurements.

• Escape angle of the THz radiation, PCA without substrate lens

*Escape angle of the THz radiation*

Because of the high refractive index n ~ 3.4 of the semiconductor PCA the outgoing terahertz waves are strongly diffracted at the substrate-air interface. The boundary angle α for the total reflection can be calculated as

α = arcsin(n^{-1}) ~ 17.1 °

Only THz waves emitted in the solid angle Ω with

can escape the substrate. For GaAs with n = 3.4 the escape solid angle is Ω = 0.088 π sr = 0.28 sr. This is only 4.4 % of the forward directed intensity.

• Aplanatic hyperhemispherical lens

*Hyperhemispherical silicon lens *

To increase the escape cone angle α a hemispherical lens with the same refractive index n as the PCA can be used. To decrease the divergence in air a hyperhemispherical lens with a certain distance d between emitter and lens tip is common. If this distance d is

then the hyperhemispherical lens is aplanatic, that means without spherical and coma aberration.
For a silicon lens with almost the same refractive index n ~ 3.4 as GaAs at
terahertz frequencies the distance is d = 1.29 R with lens radius R. The height h
of the aplanatic hyperhemispherical lens is therefore h = d - t with the thickness t of
the semiconductor PCA.

The length L from lens tip to the virtual focus behind the lens is given by

L = R (n+1)

For silicon is L = 4.4 R. With this hyperhemispherical lens nearly all the forward directed
terahertz intensity can escape the PCA. The collection angle is α = 73.6 ° and the solid angle for the collected THz beam
is Ω= 1.43 π sr = 4.51 sr.

The problem left is the beam divergence, which requires a further focusing element like a lens or mirror.

• Collimating elliptic lens

* Collimating elliptic lens*

With an elliptical lens (truncated ellipsoid) with refractive index n equal to that of the PCA a collimated THz beam can be realized if the following relations are fulfilled:

Eccentricity

Focal length

Conic constant

Distance d (lens thickness)

Here R is the radius of curvature at the intersection of the ellipsoid with the optical axis. The lens parameters scales with R.

The conic constant k = -1/n^{2} is related to the standard equation for an aspheric lens:

where the optic axis is presumed to lie in the z direction, and z(r) is the sag—the z-component of the displacement of the surface from the vertex, at distance r from the axis.

The antenna is located at the focal point F_{1} on the major axis of the truncated ellipsoid.
The ellipse is characterized by the following parameters:

semi-major axis

Semi-minor axis

The collection angle is

The solid collection angle is

The lens diameter is

For an elliptic collimating silicon lens with n ~ 3.4 the conic constant is k = -0.086, the eccentricity ε = 0.294, the lens diameter D = 2.09 R, the collection angle α = 72.8° and the solid collection angle Ω = 1.41π sr = 4.44 sr.